This bar chart shows the literacy rates of males and females in various countries around the world in 1990.
literacy rates01

  1. No years are shown on this data and no other variable, which could show a trend, is present. Consequently, the data must be grouped in other ways.
  2. What stands out is that BOYS HAVE A HIGHER LITERACY RATE THAN GIRLS IN EVERY COUNTRY. This is important because it actually stops us from using the normal strategy for this type of question which is to group the data by looking at where the number for boys is greater than girls, where the number for girls is greater than boys and where the numbers for boys and girls are about equal. This was the method we used yesterday.
  3. What is noticeable is that in some countries there is almost no gap, in others the gap is somewhat bigger and in some countries the gap is very big. The reason this method will work here is BECAUSE the boys literacy rate is ALWAYS higher than the girls.
  4. Notice that magnitude differences are also shown here with South Africa and Brazil having, in general, the highest average literacy rate followed by Turkey and Kenya with Pakistan and Mozambique clearly having the lowest overall average literacy rates.

Literacy rates about equal:
South Africa

Medium gap between boys and girls:

Large gap between boys and girls:

One way to write the big picture view here would be:

“Overall, boys have a higher literacy rate than girls in every country shown although the rates are almost equal in South Africa and Brazil where the average rates are higher, in general, than other countries given. In addition, the literacy gap is significantly higher between boys and girls in Turkey and Kenya while Pakistan and Mozambique have the highest literacy rate gap of all countries and these two countries have the lowest overall literacy rates.”

This is a complex overview statement but it covers all the key features shown in this data.

Grouping data by the size of the gap only really works because the literacy rate for boys was higher than girls in every country shown. Grouping the data this way wouldn’t be successful if the literacy rate for girls was sometimes higher than that for boys.

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(Data source:

This data source is very interesting and shows that girls have a significantly higher literacy rate than boys in only Jamaica and Lesotho.