We have talked a lot about the big picture in Task 1 IETLS Writing and we will continue to look at some other examples but today I want to look at the ESSAY STRUCTURE as a reminder to those who may have forgotten.

Although there are three main types of question in Task 1 Writing, the structure of the response is the same in each case:
1. Introduction
2. Overview
3. Details

You must write a sentence that simply says what the data is about. In doing this you must not use long phrases from the question. Look at the following examples:

“The graph illustrates information which compares the methods of travel in a Chinese city between 2000 and 2010.”

“The graph compares the proportion of expenditure on a number of household items over the period which occurred between 1995 and 2015.”

You will notice that both these sentences contain relative clause structures. This is not an accident.

All Task 1 questions must have an overview statement that sets out the key features, the MOST IMPORTANT aspects of the information – THE BIG PICTURE.

Here is what the PUBLIC BAND DESCRIPTORS say about this issue:

BAND 6 (Task Achievement): “presents an overview with information appropriately selected”
BAND 5 (Task Achievement): “no clear overview”

Can you see the penalty if you don’t have an overview statement of the big picture in your essay?

We have looked at many ways to do this over the past month for the mathematics questions and also briefly looked at process and maps, which we will do more on in the future. While in graph type Task 1 questions you would look for trends in the data or magnitude differences (or both), in a process you look for the main stages in the process and in a map for the most significant types of changes that have occurred. For example:


“Overall, consumption of fruit and ice-cream increased significantly over the period shown while the intake of sugar underwent a substantial decline. In addition, the data also shows that the amount of pasta consumed remained relatively steady.”

NOTE: All the highlighted words here are very important – do you know why? (We will come back to this tomorrow).


“In brief, pencils are made from graphite and wood in a three step process which produces the leads and the wooden pencil cases first before they are glued together into complete pencils.”

“In brief, the manufacture of cement is a three step process while the production of concrete involves a single step.”

Again, notice that these sentences are NOT SIMPLE SENTENCES but involve various subordinate structures. (Relative clauses, subordinate clauses, participle phrases – conditional sentences are also subordinate structures although there are none here.)


“In brief, significant tourist developments occurred at Laguna beach over the period from 1950 to 1990.”

“In brief, the school underwent an expansion in the teaching and outdoor sporting facilities over the period which occurred between 2000 and 2005.”

In the details section you must describe the big picture in detail, in the same order that it has been presented in the overview statement, making sure not to leave out any important information such as important data or parts of the diagram in a process or map question. Leaving out key, big picture, information could lead to the award of Band 4, according to the Public Band Descriptors.

To avoid this happening you must go through the data or diagram very logically making sure you have covered all the most important aspects of the data.

In mathematics questions we generally do not put data in the overview because we want it to be a very simple overall picture of what is shown in the data.

BUT …. In the details section, DATA MUST BE GIVEN. Here is what the PUBLIC BAND DESCRIPTORS say about this issue:

BAND 5 (Task Achievement): “there may be no data to support the description”


“In detail, sales of cars, which stood at 100 units per month in 2000, soared by the end of the decade in 2010, when they hit their highest point at 800 units per month. …..”


“In detail, clay, water and ground graphite, which are placed in a mixing container, produce graphite dough, when the mixture is stirred for 20 minutes. …..”


“In detail, the small huts on the southern end of the beach were transformed into luxury villas sometime between 1950 and 1970 while the sand dunes to the east of the huts were developed into landscaped gardens. …..”

Good use of grammar is essential, which means a mixture of various forms of subordinate and complex structures. In the case of process questions, it also means using present passive and for map questions it could involve past passive. The exact grammar needed really depends on the question. For example, if one map was now and one map was in the future, the candidate would need to use future structures to describe the expected changes.

Anyone located in Bangkok, Thailand who requires help with IELTS preparation, call Jum on the hotline at 09 3962 2496, send her a message on Line using her Line ID: jummanie or contact her via email: warapron@ielts-english.info